The word "socialism" often implies two quite different phenomena:
The calendar system and sophisticated astronomical observations were made possible by a vigesimal system of mathematics. The Maya knew the concept of zero and used it in conjunction with the concept of place value or position. With elegant simplicity and only signs for one, five, and zero, they could make complex calculations.
As among all the Mesoamerican peoples, the Maya calendar was based on a concept of recurring cycles of different length. They had a sacred cycle of days divided into months of 20 days, within which there was a cycle of 13 numbers. This ritual calendar meshed with a solar calendar of days, or 18 months of 20 days with a remainder of 5 "dead" or inauspicious days at the end of the year.
The two calendars operated simultaneously so any day would have two names, but the particular combination of those two days would reoccur only once every 52 years. Thus among the Maya and most Mesoamericans, cycles of 52 years were sacred.
The classic Maya, however, differed from their neighbors in that they also kept a "long count" or a system of dating from a fixed date in the past. This date, B.
Like other Mesoamericans and the ancient Peruvians the Maya believed in great cycles of creation and destruction of the universe.
The long count enabled the Maya to date events with precision. The earliest recorded Maya date that survives is A. A second great Maya accomplishment was the creation of a writing system.
The Maya "wrote" on stone monuments, murals, and ceramics, and in books of folded bark paper and deerskin, only four of which survive. Scribes were honored and held an important place in society. Although we still cannot read many inscriptions, recent advances now permit the reading of many texts.
The Maya written language was, like Chinese and Sumerian, a logographic system that combined phonetic and semantic elements. With this system and about symbols they were able to record and transmit complex concepts and ideas.
The few remaining books are religious and astronomical texts, and many inscriptions on ceramics deal with the cult of the dead and with the complex Maya cosmology.
The Maya view of the universe was a flat earth, whose cardinal points and center were each dominated by a god who supported the sky. Above the sky extended 13 levels of heavens and below nine underworlds, each dominated by a god. Through these levels the sun and the moon, also conceived as deities, passed each day.
A basic concept of Mesoamerican dualism - male and female, good and bad, day and night - emphasized the unity of all things, similar to that found in some Asian religions. Thus each god often had a parallel female consort or feminine form and often an underworld equivalent as well.
In addition, there were patron deities of various occupations and classes. Thus the number of deities in the inscriptions seems overwhelming, but these should be understood as manifestations of a more limited set of supernatural forces, much like the avatars, or incarnations, of the Hindu gods.
While the few surviving books are religious in character, the majority of inscriptions on monuments are historical records of the ruling families of the Maya cities.
The major Maya centers were the cores of city-states that controlled outlying territories. There was constant warfare, and rulers, such as Pacal of Palenque who died in A. Pacal's victories were recorded on his funerary monuments and in his lavish tomb discovered inside a pyramid at Palenque.
The rulers exercised considerable civil and probably religious power, and their rule was aided by an elite that exercised administrative functions. A class of scribes or perhaps priests tended to the cult of the state and specialized in the complex calendrical observations and calculations.The Peoples And Civilizations Of The Americas.
Author: Adas, Michael. Date: The Archaic Cultures By about B.C. small bands of hunters were widely dispersed over the. Emperors of the Sangoku,, the "Three Kingdoms," of India, China, & Japan. India and China are the sources of the greatest civilizations in Eastern and Southern Asia.
Their rulers saw themselves as universal monarchs, thereby matching the pretensions of the Roman Emperors in the West.
The only drawbacks to their historical priority were that India suffered a setback, when the Indus Valley. Comparing the Cultures of The Ik, The Pomo Indians, and The Nayar Society of Southern India - Comparing the Cultures of The Ik, The Pomo Indians, and The Nayar Society of Southern India The three cultures I have chosen to talk about in this essay are ‘The Ik’ culture, ‘The Pomo Indians’ and The Nayar Society of Southern India’ The Ik is a culture from Northern Uganda.
Fig. Behaim’s globe () represents the prevailing geographical misconceptions of explorers such as Columbus.. Likewise, the globe produced by Portuguese cartographer and navigator Martin Behaim between and showed mainland China (Cathay) only miles west of Europe, and in front of it Cipango (Japan) and the Indies; the Americas are entirely absent.
Egypt and Mesopotamia: Similarities and Differences in Religion Words Feb 2nd, 4 Pages Most societies that developed in ancient civilizations were centered around their belief systems.
The surprising similarities between ancient Egypt and China The exhibition also includes this ox-shaped wine jar, dating back to the late Shang Period (13thth century BC.).